Kristan z Prachatic: Stavba a Uziti astrolabu




Praha 2001
Filosofia, nakladatelstvi Filosofickeho ustavu AV CR, 110 00 Praha 1, Jilska 1
ISBN 80-7007-148-6
520 stran (cena 560 Kc)
Vydano s podporou publikacniho grantu E9062101 Grantove agentury AVCR.
V ramci projektu Astronomie ve stredovekych latinskych rukopisech a starych tiscich podporovaneho granty Grantove agentury CR k vydani pripravili, prelozili, uvodem, poznamkami a dodatky a obrazky opatrili Alena a Petr Hadravovi.
Recenze - Anezka Vidmanova a Jan Kalivoda

Kniha prinasi kriticke vydani traktatu mistra prazske Karlovy univerzity Kristana z Prachatic (po roce 1360-1439) o Stavbe a Uziti astrolabu (Composicio astrolabii, Usus astrolabii). Edice je doprovozena ceskym komentovanym prekladem (spolu s pocitacovymi simulacemi Kristanova navrhu konstrukce pristroje) a dodatky. V soucasne dobe se chysta latinsko-francouzska upravena verze nasi edice, ktera by mela vyjit v edicni rade Astrolabica, vydavane "Societe Internationale de l'Astrolabe" v Parizi.
Astrolab byl univerzalni astronomicky a zememericsky pristroj, oblibeny a uzivany od antiky az po novovek. Tema astrolabu ve stredoveku nalezelo k zakladum vyuky astronomie na vsech evropskych univerzitach. Svetova literatura uchovava velke mnozstvi textu o tomto pristroji. Nauka o astrolabu vychazela z recky psaneho Ptolemaiova spisu Planisphaerium (2. stol. n.l.). Arabskym prostrednictvim se dostala do Evropy a v latinskych prekladech a prepracovanich pusobila po cely stredovek. K jednomu z nejoblibenejsich spisu o astrolabu patrilo pojednani Pseudo-Masa'allaha (na jehoz spolehlivou edici se stale ceka). S jeho vlivem se setkavame i v postupne vznikajicich textech v narodnich jazycich (preklad Pseudo-Masa'allaha do francouzstiny poridil v roce 1362 Pelerin de Prusse, cf. edici Laird - Fischer 1995; preklad do anglictiny z pera Geoffreye Chaucera z roku 1391 vydali Skeat 1872 /reprint 1968/ a Gunther 1929). V Kristanovych pojednanich se s Pseudo-Masa'allahovymi stopami setkavame take, ovsem jeho dilo je do znacne miry samostatne.
Kristan obe pojednani napsal v roce 1407 jako podklad svych univerzitnich prednasek. Autograf traktatu, jak Stavby (inc.: Quamvis de astrolabii composicione tam modernorum quam veterum dicta habentur pulcherrima ...), tak Uziti (inc.: Quia plurimi ob nimiam quandoque accurtacionem ...) se nedochoval, nejstarsi opisy mu vsak nejsou casove prilis vzdaleny. Text se rozsiril v mnoha opisech po cele Evrope, dnes zname priblizne 80 rukopisu, pricemz nejmladsi pochazeji z poloviny 16. stoleti. Jejich soupis zacina na str. 76 (kap. 1.5.2). Do nasi edice byly vybrany texty, jejichz sigla jsou uvedena na str. 133 (kap. 2.1) a str. 201 (kap. 3.1). Za zaklad edice Stavby byl vzat ms. Heiligenkreuz, Zisterzienserstift Bibliothek, Cod. 302, fol. 121r-131v, z roku 1447 (nase znacka: H), za zaklad edice Uziti pak ms. prazske Narodni knihovny XIII F 25, fol. 49r-68r, z let 1407-1408 (nase znacka: F). Kriticky aparat edice otiskujeme v uplnosti. Lingvisticke rozbory ruznocteni pomohly stanovit vztahy mezi jednotlivymi opisy ci pribuznymi skupinami rukopisu a smery jejich sireni od zakladni prazske skupiny (cf. graf na str. 108). Statisticke zpracovani kritickeho aparatu na str. 96 a 104 tyto zavery potvrdilo.
Z predlozene edice vyplyva, ze prave Kristanovy traktaty byly i prvnim textem o astrolabu, ktery kdy vysel tiskem (cf. znamou inkunabuli z Perugie 1477-1479, jejiz popis je na str. 85). Za timto prvnim vydanim nasledovala dalsi, vime prozatim o peti dalsich inkunabulich a starych tiscich: Kolin nad Rynem 1478, Benatky 1497-1498 (1494 ?), Benatky 1512, Benatky 1521, Padova 1549 (cf. tabulku na str. 54).
Predmluva k prvnimu, perugijskemu vydani, napsana U. Lanciarinem, chvali didaktickou uroven textu, prehlednost vykladu a jeho srozumitelnost. Vysvetluje tim, proc prave tento text byl oblibeny a zvolen k tisku (opis predmluvy je na str. 46, jeji foto na str. 490). Lanciarinus ovsem za autora pojednani oznacuje Roberta Anglica. Tato atribuce se vzila i v nasledujici literature a pretrvava dodneska. Jindy je za autora oznacovan Prosdocimus de Beldomandi (ke genezi tohoto omylu cf. str. 51), nekdy i jini autori. Argumentaci pro Kristanovo autorstvi a prazsky puvod textu prinasi sam textovy material edice, graf zavislosti jednotlivych rukopisu a tisku a vyrazne tez nekolik mist v textu se zminkami o Cechach a Praze, vcetne pozdejsich interpolaci dalsich lokalit (cf. vyklad od str. 108 a zvlaste tabulku na str. 116).
Proc bylo Kristanovo autorstvi zapomenuto? Kristan jako prominentni osobnost husitske revoluce byl pro okolni katolickou Evropu 'persona non grata'. (Podivejme se, jak Kristana charakterizuje napr. autor opisu Kalocsa, Foszekesegyhazi Konyvtar, 326, po roce 1434, fol. 66r: Expliciunt utilitates astrolabii nove, satis valentes, Magistri Cristanni de Brachadicz, heretici perfidissimi pronunc, licet in composicione sive edicione earundem fuerit cristianus. - Konci nove, dosti vyznamne pojednani o uziti astrolabu mistra Kristana z Prachatic, v dnesni dobe nejhorsiho kacire, byt se pri psani ci zverejneni spisu projevil jako krestan.) Kristanovo zavrzeni katolickym svetem vysvetluje, proc autorstvi obou jeho traktatu bylo vetsinou zamlcovano a nakonec zapomenuto a pozdeji mylne prirceno jinym autorum, trebaze prazsky puvod textu je zrejmy.
I kdyz astronomicke znalosti byly Kristanovymi soucasniky povazovany patrne za nejvyraznejsi rys jeho osobnosti, jak lze soudit napr. z jeho epitafia (motto na str. 14), astronomie zdaleka nebyla jedinou domenou jeho pusobeni. Kristan napsal matematicke spisy Algorismus prosaycus a Computus chirometralis. Dulezite byly jeho lekarske spisy, predevsim cesky psane Lekarske knizky a Rozlicna lekarstvi, ktere byly tiskem vydavany po cele sestnacte stoleti, nebo latinsky psane spisy Collecta per magistrum Cristannum de Prachaticz de sanguinis minucione (Vyklad mistra Kristana z Prachatic o pousteni krve), Tabula minucionum sanguinis et lunacionum (Tabulka lunaci pro pousteni krve), spisy o lecich, Herbarius (Herbar) a dalsi.
Kristanovy spisy by samy o sobe svemu autorovi zajistily cestne misto v dejinach vedy. Kristan vsak nebyl jen teoretik, ale tez vlivny muz spolecnosti sve doby. Predevsim byl vyznacnym predstavitelem Karlovy univerzity, nekolikrat byl jejim rektorem. Byl to prave Kristan, kdo podporoval na studiich sveho mladsiho pritele Jana Husa; prave pro Kristana opsal v roce 1398 Jan Hus Viklefovy spisy. Roku 1411 se Kristan ve svem kostele sv. Michala vzeprel vyhlaseni papezske klatby nad Husem. Kristan sam byl vubec jednim z prvnich kalisniku; jeho kostel spolu s nedalekym staromestskym kostelem u sv. Martina ve zdi byla vubec prvni mista, kde se zacalo prijimat podoboji a odkud se sirily husitske myslenky. O prijimani podoboji napsal Kristan i dva teologicke spisy. Kristan dokonce necekane navstivil Husa ve vezeni v Kostnici a sam byl pritom docasne uveznen; s Kristanem se Hus louci ve svem poslednim dopise jako se svym ochrancem. Kristan byl pevny ve svych zasadach. Nikdy se nevzdal kalisnictvi, nepripojil se vsak ani ke kalisnickemu radikalismu, ktery narustal po Husove smrti a vedl az k husitskym valkam. Dvakrat byl proto dokonce donucen opustit Prahu. Na sklonku zivota byl Kristan osobnosti respektovanou katolickou i husitskou stranou.
Soucasnikem a univerzitnim kolegou Kristana byl M. Iohannes Andreae dictus Schindel (Jan Ondrejuv, receny Sindel). Jan Sindel proslul jako ideovy otec navrhu prazskeho staromestskeho orloje, datovaneho (jak dokazal Horsky - Prochazka 1964 a Horsky 1988) jiz do roku 1410, tj. do doby, kdy Kristan prednasel tema astrolabu na prazske univerzite a napsal sva dve pojednani na toto tema (foto orloje cf. str. 507). Jan Sindel je i autorem zajimave prace popisujici navrh jineho astronomickeho pristroje `Canones pro eclipsibus Solis et Lune per instrumentum ad hoc factum (Pravidla pro vypocet zatmeni Slunce a Mesice pomoci k tomu zhotoveneho pristroje - edice se pripravuje), zalozene na albionu Richarda z Wallingfordu (resp. na verzi albionu, ktera pochazi z pera soudobeho videnskeho univerzitniho profesora, mistra Johanna von Gmunden).
Vlastni verzi Kristanovych pojednani o astrolabu poridil ve Vidni magister Johannes of Gmunden ve 20. ci 30. letech 15. stoleti. Srovnavaci edice teto verze obou pojednani (zalozena pouze na dvou rukopisech, sigla cf. str. 331 a 349) je soucasti nasi knihy take (cf. str. 323, kap. 4.1 a 4.2). Edice je dukazem, ze Johannes von Gmunden prejal v podstate celek Kristanovych traktatu, nektera mista vsak vice rozpracoval (takova vyraznejsi mista vyznacujeme kurzivou). Johannes von Gmunden stoji u pocatku slavne videnske astronomicke skoly, jeho nastupci na videnske univerzite se stali Georg von Peuerbach a Regiomontanus.
Pomocna, orientacni edice traktatu o astrolabu Johanna von Gmunden je v praci zarazena jako prvni appendix. V apendixech jsou dale soustredeny tabulky podnebnich pasem (klimat, str. 378, kap. 4.4), tabulky vychodu znameni zodiaku (str. 391, kap. 4.6), tabulky hvezd (str. 393, kap. 4.7), tabulky zacatku mesicu (str. 414, kap. 4.8) a tabulky zemepisnych souradnic mest (str. 420, kap. 4.9), ktere pochazeji z opisu Kristanovych traktatu. Jako srovnavaciho materialu bylo vyuzito i tabulek z jinych, analogickych pramenu. Jejich matematicke zpracovani prispelo k dataci tabulek. Matematicka teorie astrolabu (str. 374, kap. 4.3) je doplnkem ke kapitole 1.3 na str. 55, prinasejici zakladni pouceni o principu stereograficke projekce. Podrobnejsi vyklad o moznostech konstrukce (ne)rovnomernych hodin na astrolabu, jak je navrhuje a resi nejen Kristan, ale i ruzne jine texty v prurezu doby, podava kap. 4.5 na str. 380. Svedectvi o pusobnosti Kristanovych traktatu o astrolabu najdeme v posledni kapitole appendixu (kap. 4.10, str. 435). Jsou tu soustredeny doslovne ci parafrazovane pasaze prevzate z Kristanova Uziti a zapracovane do oddilu o astronomii v rozsahle encyklopedii Liber viginti arcium (ms. Krakov, Jagellonska knihovna, 257, sedesata leta 15. stoleti) M. Pavla Zidka (Paulerinus de Praga). (Stopy vlivu Kristanovych pojednani najdeme ostatne i pozdeji, v literature 1. poloviny 16. stol., napr. v proslule a mnohokrat vydane praci o astrolabu Johanna Stofflera.)
Slovnik pojmu na str. 464 shrnuje terminologii obsazenou prave v Kristanovych spisech o astrolabu.
Prace je prvnim vysledkem interdisciplinarni spoluprace autoru z oboru medievalistiky a astronomie. Cilem dlouhodobeho projektu je studium dosud malo znamych stredovekych latinskych astronomickych rukopisu a starych tisku ceske provenience a jejich zpristupnovani formou edic. Ostatne i v celosvetovem meritku je stale tizivy nedostatek kvalitnich edic zakladnich odbornych del stredolatinske literatury.
Na e-mailove adrese had@sunstel.asu.cas.cz radi privitame pripominky a vsechny doplnujici informace k danemu tematu.


English summary:
The present volume is the first critical edition of the treatises on the Composition and Use of the Astrolabe by Cristannus de Prachaticz (Kristan of Prachatice, born post-1360, died 1439), Master of Charles University in Prague. The text is accompanied by an annotated Czech translation (plus computer-simulated images of the instrument created according to Cristannus' design) and appendices. At the present time a Latin/French version of this edition is due to be published by Societe Internationale de l'Astrolabe in Paris in its Astrolabica book series.
The astrolabe was a universal astronomical and geodesic instrument that was widely used from Antiquity up to modern times. In the Middle Ages, study of the astrolabe was a fundamental part of the astronomy curriculum in European universities. World literature contains many texts about the instrument. Study of the astrolabe was based on Ptolemy's Greek-language treatise Planisphaerium (2nd century A.D.). Arabs were instrumental in bringing it to Europe, where, in Latin translations and adaptations, it exercised an influence throughout the Middle Ages. One of the most popular treatises on the astrolabe was by Pseudo-Messahalla (a reliable edition of which is yet to be published). Its influence is apparent in many Latin texts. It was also gradually translated into national languages: a French translation of Pseudo-Messahalla was made in 1362 by Pelerin de Prusse, cf. the Laird - Fischer edition of 1995; Geoffrey Chaucer's English translation of 1391 was published by Skeat in 1872 (reprint 1968) and Gunther 1929. There are some traces of Pseudo-Messahalla in Cristannus' writings, although his work is essentially autonomous.
Cristannus wrote both treatises in 1407 as the basis of his university lectures in astronomy. Neither sections of the original manuscript of the treatise have been preserved, i.e. the Composition (inc.: Quamvis de astrolabii composicione tam modernorum quam veterum dicta habentur pulcherrima ...), and the Use (inc.: Quia plurimi ob nimiam quandoque accurtacionem ...), but the earliest copies were made quite soon after it was written. The text circulated throughout Europe in many copies and currently we know of some 80 manuscripts, the most recent of which date from the mid-16th century. The list of them starts on page 78 (chap.1.4.2). The present volume comprises texts whose sigla are listed on p. 135 (chap. 2.1) and p. 203 (chap. 3.1). We chose as the basis for the Composition text the ms. Heiligenkreuz, Zisterzienserstift Bibliothek, Cod. 302, fol. 121r-131v, from the year 1447 (H in our marking), and for the Use text the ms. of the Prague National Library XIII F 25, fol. 49r-68r, from 1407-1408 (F in our marking). The critical notes are published in full. Linguistic analysis of the textual variants has helped to establish links between individual copies or groups of similar manuscripts and the direction of their dispersal from the original Prague group (cf. graph on p. 110). These conclusions were confirmed by statistical processing of the alternative readings on pp. 98 and 106.
It is clear from the text chosen for the present volume that Cristannus' treatises were the first text about the astrolabe to be printed (cf. the well-known Perugia incunabulum of 1477-1479, described on p. 87). That first publication was followed by others; so far we know of five other incunabula and old printings: Cologne 1478, Venice 1497-1498 (1494 ?), Venice 1512, Venice 1521, Padua 1549 (cf. Table on p. 54).
The foreword to the first printed version in Perugia, written by U. Lanciarinus, praises the text for its high didactical level, clarity of exposition and lucidity. That explains why this text in particular was so popular and chosen for printing (the foreword is reproduced on p. 45, and there is a photograph of it on p. 495). However, Lanciarinus attributes its authorship to Robertus Anglicus. That attribution gained acceptance in subsequent literature and has survived up to the present. Elsewhere the author is given as Prosdocimus de Beldomandi (see p. 50 for an explanation of the origin of that error), or others. Arguments in favour of Cristannus' authorship and the text's Prague origin are provided in a number of articles as well as the graph of interrelatedness of different manuscripts and a number of references to Bohemia in the text and later interpolations about other localities (cf. the explanation starting on p. 110 and particularly the Table on p. 118).
Why was Cristannus' authorship forgotten? As a prominent figure in the Hussite revolution, Cristannus was 'persona non grata' for Catholic Europe. (See, for instance, how Cristannus was described by the author of the Kalocsa copy, Foszekesegyh zi Konyvt r, 326, post-1434, fol. 66r: Expliciunt utilitates astrolabii nove, satis valentes, Magistri Cristanni de Brachadicz, heretici perfidissimi pronunc, licet in composicione sive edicione earundem fuerit cristianus. - "Here ends a new and quite important treatise on the use of the astrolabe by Master Cristannus of Prachatice, one of the worst heretics of the present day, although in the matter of writing and publishing the treatise he behaved as a Christian.") Cristannus' rejection by the Catholic world explains why the authorship of both treatises was generally concealed and eventually forgotten, and how subsequently it was wrongly attributed to other authors, even though the texts' Prague origins are evident.
Although his contemporaries apparently regarded Cristannus' astronomical knowledge to be his most characteristic trait, as is evident, for example, from his epitaph (the motto on p. 13), astronomy was far from being his sole field of activity. Cristannus also wrote the mathematical treatises Algorismus prosaycus and Computus chirometralis. Of significance were his medical treatises, especially the Medical Books and Diverse Medicine, written in Czech and published in print throughout the 16th century, or the Latin texts Collecta per magistrum Cristannum de Prachaticz de sanguinis minucione ('Exposition on bloodletting by Master Cristannus of Prachatice'), Tabula minucionum sanguinis et lunacionum ('Lunation table for bloodletting'), treatises on medicines, Herbarius ('Herbal') and others.
Cristannus' treatises alone ensured their author a place of honour in the history of science. However, Cristannus was not merely a theoretician but also a man of influence in the society of his days. Above all he was a distinguished representative of Charles University, of which he was several times Rector. It was Cristannus who supported his younger friend Jan Hus in his studies and it was for Cristannus that Hus made a copy of Wycliffe's treatises in 1398. In 1411, at his own church of St. Michael, Cristannus opposed the Pope's anathematisation of Hus. Cristannus himself was one of the very first Utraquists; his church and the church of St. Martin 'in the Wall' were the first to offer communion in both kinds and to propagate Hussite ideas. Cristannus also wrote about communion in both kinds in two theological treatises. He even paid an unexpected visit to Hus in his prison cell at Constance and was himself imprisoned for a time. In his last letter, Hus takes leave of Cristannus, describing him as his protector. Cristannus was firm in his principles. He never renounced Utraquism, but neither did he side with its radical wing that grew up after Hus' death and eventually led to the Hussite wars. Indeed, he was forced to leave Prague on two occasions. At the end of his life Cristannus was a figure respected by the Catholic and Hussite parties alike.
One of Cristannus' contemporaries and university colleagues was Master Iohannes Andreae dictus Schindel (Jan Ondrejuv known as Sindel). Jan Sindel made his name as the originator of the idea of the Prague Astronomical Clock, dated - as established by Horsky - Prochazka 1964 and Horsky 1988 - to as early as 1410, i.e. the period when Cristannus was lecturing on the theme of the astrolabe at Prague University and when he wrote his two treatises on the subject (photograph of the Astronomical Clock on p. 512). Jan Sindel also wrote another interesting paper describing a design for a new astronomical instrument Canones pro eclipsibus Solis et Lune per instrumentum ad hoc factum ('Rules for calculating eclipses of the Sun and Moon by means of a special instrument'), which is currently being prepared for publication. His instrument was derived from the albion of Richard of Wallingford (or a version of the albion described by a Sindel's and Cristannus' contemporary, Master Johannes von Gmunden, professor of Vienna University).
Master Johannes von Gmunden drew up his own version of Cristannus' treatises on the astrolabe in the 1420s or 1430s. A comparative edition of that version of both treatises (based solely on two mss. cf. pp. 331 and 349) is also included in the present volume (cf. p. 323, chaps. 4.1 and 4.2). That edition is proof that Johannes von Gmunden virtually borrowed Cristannus' treatises in entirety, while developing a number of passages (the most significant of which are printed in italic). Johannes von Gmunden was one of the founders of the celebrated Viennese school of astronomy and was succeeded at Vienna University by Georg von Peuerbach and Regiomontanus.
For purposes of reference, an ancillary edition of Johannes von Gmunden's treatises on the astrolabe is included in the present volume as the first appendix. Other appendices include tables of climatic zones (climate, p. 378, chap. 4.4), tables of ascensions of the signs of the zodiac (p. 391, chap. 4.6), star tables (p. 393, chap. 4.7), tables of the first days of the month (p. 414, chap. 4.8) and tables of geographical co-ordinates of cities (p. 420, chap. 4.9), taken from copies of Cristannus' treatises. Other tables from analogous sources were also used as comparative material. Their mathematical processing has helped in dating the texts. The mathematical theory of the astrolabe (p. 374, chap. 4.3) is an addendum to chapter 1.3 on p. 55, which sets out basic information about the principle of stereographic projection. Chapter. 4.5 on p. 380 consists of a more detailed exposition about the possibility of constructing (un)equal hours, as proposed and designed not only by Cristannus but also in various other texts over a number of centuries. The last chapter (4.10, p. 433) consists of evidence of the subsequent impact of Cristannus' treatises on the astrolabe. It includes passages from Cristannus' Use of the Astrolabe quoted verbatim or paraphrased in the section on astronomy of the extensive encyclopaedia Liber viginti arcium (ms. Krakow, Jagellonian Library, 257, 1460s) by Master Pavel Zidek (Paulerinus de Praga). (There is also later evidence of Cristannus' treatises in the literature of the first half of the 16th century, such as Johannes Stoeffler's celebrated and frequently re-published work on the astrolabe.)
The glossary of terms on p. 463 includes the terminology used in Cristannus' treatises on the astrolabe.
The present volume is the first fruit of the authors' interdisciplinary co-operation in the fields of medieval studies and astronomy. The long-term aim of the project is the study of still little-known medieval Latin astronomical manuscripts and old printed editions of Czech origin and their re-publication. In fact there is still a lamentable world-wide dearth of good quality editions of basic specialised works of Middle Latin literature.



(Viz tez prochazka astronomickou Prahou.)
Tuto stranku (http://www.asu.cas.cz/~had/kristan.html) vytvoril Petr Hadrava,
Informace z nakladatelstvi si muzete vyzadat na telefonim cisle 222220721, faxem 222220138 nebo e-mailem na adrese tisksob@lorien.site.cas.cz, informace od autoru had@sunstel.asu.cas.cz.
Upraveno 22.1.2004
Stranky navstiveny krat od kvetna 2002